Riverside Hybrids


Passiflora showing slight chlorosis.

Image © 2005 Dr. Horst Kretzschmar


Passiflora or Passion flower mineral nutrients.


Mineral* Functions Deficiency Excess
Micronutrient. Important for phloem transport and cell elongation. Aids production of sugars. Essential for fruit & seed development. Growing tips become deformed or die, also leaf discolouration. Leaf tips yellow & die. Leaves look scorched & fall.
Secondary macronutrient. Many functions including structural integrity of cells & growing tips. Reduced growth, deformation or death of growing tips. Poor fruit development. May cause deficiency in either magnesium or potassium. 
Carbon From CO2 in air, essential to build sugars. N/A N/A
Micronutrient. Important in fluid balance & in breaking down water for photosynthesis. Club roots. Wilted leaves becoming bronze, chlorotic then dying. Salt injury causing leaf burn.
Micronutrient. Transition metal. Important in electron transport & reproductive growth. Aids in root metabolism and helps in the utilization of proteins. Similar to Iron deficiency if soil acidic. May cause distortion of new growth. Can occur in peat potting composts.
Hydrogen From H2O, essential to build sugars. N/A N/A
Iron Micronutrient. Transition metal. Important for enzyme synthesis & function. Electron transfer processes and chlorophyll synthesis.  Chlorosis. Yellow/white interveinal areas on young upper leaves leading to areas of leaf death. May cause leaf bronzing with tiny brown spots. 
Secondary macronutrient. This is an essential part of the chlorophyll molecule. Vital in photosynthesis and respiration. Chlorosis, leaves appearing pale green or yellow. Yellowing between leaf veins spreading to younger leaves. poor fruit development and low yield.  Excess rare as well tolerated. Too much will suppress Calcium & Potassium & reduce growth. 
Micronutrient. Essential in photosynthesis & respiration including enzyme systems breakdown of carbohydrates. Interveinal Chlorosis, yellowing or mottled young upper leaves.  followed by brown spots giving a chequered red effect. Reduced growth. Older leaves with brown spots surrounded by a chlorotic ring. 
Looks like Iron deficiency. Can occur in acid soils.
Micronutrient. Essential component of enzymes for nitrogen fixing. Interveinal  Chlorosis on older leaves which may distort. N/A
Micronutrient. Found in seeds and fruit. Needed to help form urease to break down urea nitrogen for plant use. Involved in the iron uptake from the soil.

Decreased iron utilization.


Chlorosis and necrotic leaf margins.
Nitrogen Primary macronutrient. Needed for photosynthesis, growth & respiration. It is a constituent of DNA, RNA & amino acids which are used to build protein molecules. Nitrogen is inert & has to be incorporated into the plant by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodes.  Pale & lower leaves yellow or dying. Light green to yellow appearance of leaves, especially older leaves; stunted growth poor fruit development.  Dark green over vigorous  foliage which is susceptible to disease & insect attack & will not overwinter well. Poor fruit & seeds.
Oxygen O2, H2O. Essential for photosynthesis of sugar molecules. N/A N/A
Primary macronutrient. Essential for reproduction & photosynthesis & involved in energy transfer & formation of oils, sugars & starches. Helps maturation, blooming & root growth. Slow development, poor growth, flowering and fruiting. Leaves may appear purple.  May cause micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron or zinc.
Primary Macronutrient. Activates many enzymes, encourages flowering & important in osmosis (fluid balance). Second to nitrogen in absorption for most plants. Builds disease resistance, improves fruit quality. Older leaves yellowing around edges & then dying. Poor growth & vulnerable to disease. In Passiflora few or no flowers & poor fruiting & poor heat tolerance.  May cause deficiencies of calcium & magnesium.
Secondary macronutrient. Constituent of some amino acids. Enzyme cofactor and constituent. Improves root growth & seed production. Electron transfer processes and chlorophyll synthesis. Cold resistance. Yellowing of young upper leaves spreading to whole plant. Occurs on new growth initially.  May cause early leaf drop.

Micronutrient. Enzyme cofactor, growth hormone synthesis. Transformation of carbohydrates & sugar consumption. Interveinal chlorosis/yellowing on young leaves, reduced leaf size. Rosetting. May cause iron deficiency.