Hybrid pollen is often prone to deformations which can render it ineffective or sterile
A bit about Passiflora, the site and acknowledgements.
How species avoid hybridizing with other species in the wild.
Often, but not always, beneficial to Passiflora.
Looks at the nature of the the bonding between the pollen and the stigma.
Prints, paintings, pottery, glassware & more.
A small selection of articles re Passiflora.
Enter the nocturnal world of bats where they pollinate Passiflora with white flowers that often have a musky scent to attract them.
The most well known pollinators.
There is a unique special relationship between butterflies and Passiflora.
Passiflora under threat.
Different ways to prepare cuttings.
Perhaps 40 or more Passiflora have fruit we would judge as being edible.
A good place to start for basic passion flower advice.
More likely to be pollen thieves than pollinators for most Passiflora.
Some Passiflora are very difficult to flower. A look at the genetics behind flowering.
An insight into the complex genetic history of Passiflora.
Looking at all aspects of seed including germination tips.
Little is known about what if any inhibitors are in Passiflora seed.
A look at what works and what doesn't.
Greenfly & Blackfly
Minor biting damage but can introduce viruses.
Everything from cuttings to hardiness, seed sowing and more.
How to prepare the soil, hardiness, temperature ranges & overwintering passion flowers.
From the seventeeth century to date.
Small organic compounds which help control the growth and development of plants.
Fascinating highly specialised birds that pollinate some of the most spectacular Passiflora.
Images & hardiness figures.
Trying to produce new hybrids is fun.
Usually Tortrix moth caterpillars, only a threat to small plants.
From seed to fruit and back again.
How long do Passiflora live.
Some tender passion flowers may benefit from extra lighting.
Where to buy Passiflora seed and plants and more.
Learn more about plant mineral needs.
Some may pollinate Passiflora flowers on their visits.
Bees and flower movement.
Hybrids that I have named. All are commercially available.
Pests & diseases
How to deal with pests and other problems.
A look at how to keep your plants happy and avoid pests & diseases.
Looking at chlorophylls, anthocyanins and carotenoids.
Whether in the pot or the ground I use high Potassium feeds with micronutrients.
Help to ID your passion flower.
The science behind Passiflora pollen grains & their complex interactions with the stigma when pollination occurs.
A definition of pollen and a look at its structure.
Information & images
Most Passiflora need pollinators but some can also self pollinate.
Some new Passiflora hybrids are being created with polyploid chromosomes.
How to preserve pollen for SEM study or pollinating other flowers at a later time.
Hybrid lists & how to register new cultivars & hybrids.
Sap suckers which can greatly weaken plants.
From Passiflora articles to genetics, hormones, pollen, SEM images and more.
Looking at all aspects of seed including germination tips
A small experiment on seed germination.
The basics of how to germinate Passiflora seed
Images of a number of different types of Passiflora seed.
An overview including man's history of growing Passiflora from seed.
Seed SEM images
Incredible high magnification images up to x 10 000.
How to keep seed in optimum condition.
Looks at why some Passiflora self pollinate and the role of 'alien' pollen.
High magnification Passiflora flower, foliage, pollen & seed images.
Stunning pictures of many different Passiflora hybrid and species pollen.
Slugs & snails
A big problem for some of us -they can strip and kill a small plant overnight.
Passiflorasoil types & mixes.
Many images & hardiness figures.
Very hard to spot and very difficult to get rid of in greenhouses.
A study of P. incarnata looking at how flower variations & style & stigma movement maximize fertility.
Passiflora contain some very interesting and powerful substances.
Nectar thieves and occasional pollinators on a few species.